With all of the security concerns out there and data being more important than ever, it might be also time to consider encrypting your data connections, even within your own data center. If you are utilizing cloud, there should be no question that some sort of encryption should be used. In terms of what Oracle provides, you have two options, Native Encryption and SSL/TLS encryption. As of the time of this writing, both of these options are free to use and are no longer part of the Advanced Security Option. In this post, I will discuss the set-up and use of Native Encryption, with SSL/TLS to come later.
Native network encryption provided by the Oracle client is by far, the easiest to set up, so in that same context it would also be the easiest to bypass. That said, there are ways to set it up in such a way that those risks can be mitigated. Due to those same risks, Native encryption would be a great solution to use within a private data center, but not in a public or hybrid cloud scenario. SSL/TLS would be an option to pursue in a public or hybrid cloud scenario and I plan to discuss that in a future post.
Setup of Native encryption is pretty straight forward and easy, especially for OCI “Thick” connections and any other method that utilizes the sqlnet.ora file. In cases where that file is not utilized, there is some additional setup and I will discuss that as well.
First, it is important to understand all of the different combinations of parameters which Native encryption uses. Luckily it is only two, however, there are many different combinations and those combinations and their results are better detailed here:
Version 12.x (OCI Thick):
Version 12.x (JDBC Thin):
By default, both sides of any client connection is configured to ‘ACCEPT’ an encrypted connection. Because of this, you only have to configure one side or the other, but for safety reasons, I would recommend configuration of both sides.
In 11.2, there are a few less options in terms of encryption and checksum algorithms, so for simplicity circumstances, I will just illustrate a 12.x ‘THICK’ client connection to an 18.104.22.168 database.
To enable this option within the ‘THICK’ client:
# sqlnet.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/12.2.0/client_1/network/admin/sqlnet.ora # Generated by Oracle configuration tools. NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT) SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT = REQUIRED SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT = (AES256) SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT = REQUIRED SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT = (SHA1)
If you are utilizing JDBC ‘thin’ connections, then you can also set the properties within the java code itself:
And edit the sqlnet.ora on the server:
# sqlnet.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/22.214.171.124/grid/network/admin/sqlnet.ora # Generated by Oracle configuration tools. NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH= (TNSNAMES, EZCONNECT) ADR_BASE = /u01/app/oracle SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER = REQUIRED SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER = (AES256) SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER = REQUIRED SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER = (SHA1)
There are a few ways to validate that encryption is actually taking place. The easiest is to execute the following SQL upon login to the database:
If no encryption is occurring, then the banner will look like this:
SQL> select network_service_banner from v$session_connect_info 2 where sid in (select distinct sid from v$mystat); NETWORK_SERVICE_BANNER ----------------------- TCP/IP NT Protocol Adapter for Linux: Version 126.96.36.199.0 - Production Oracle Advanced Security: encryption service for Linux: Version 188.8.131.52.0 - Production Oracle Advanced Security: crypto-checksumming service for Linux: Version 184.108.40.206.0 - Production
If encryption is happening, then the banner will return additional data:
SQL> select network_service_banner from v$session_connect_info 2 where sid in (select distinct sid from v$mystat); NETWORK_SERVICE_BANNER ----------------------- TCP/IP NT Protocol Adapter for Linux: Version 220.127.116.11.0 - Production Oracle Advanced Security: encryption service for Linux: Version 18.104.22.168.0 - Production Oracle Advanced Security: AES256 encryption service adapter for Linux: Version 22.214.171.124.0 - Product Oracle Advanced Security: crypto-checksumming service for Linux: Version 126.96.36.199.0 - Production Oracle Advanced Security: SHA1 crypto-checksumming service adapter
Notice the 2 additional lines in the banner when encryption is occurring:
Oracle Advanced Security: AES256 encryption service adapter for Linux: Version 188.8.131.52.0 – Product
Oracle Advanced Security: SHA1 crypto-checksumming service adapter
So the database indicates that encryption is happening, so what is actually happening on the wire? To determine that, we can either use a product like Wireshark or trace the connection to the listener. To do this, enable the following parameters in the SQLNET.ORA on the client:
DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=OFF TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/home/oracle/trace TRACE_FILE_CLIENT=nettrace TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT=16
And in the trace filem you will see an entry similar to the following:
(3310995200) [24-APR-2017 10:19:21:077] na_tns: Encryption is active, using AES256 (3310995200) [24-APR-2017 10:19:21:077] na_tns: Crypto-checksumming is active, using SHA1
So as you can see, the setup of Native encryption is quite easy. As with any additional feature, performance could be compromised, so make sure you test all combinations thoroughly in order to determine what works best in your environment. Enjoy!